Social Realistic Portrayal of Indian Society in the Selected Poems of Nissim Ezekiel

Abbas Khan, Noureen Waqar, Muhammad Ishtiaq

  • Abbas Khan City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar
  • Noureen Waqar City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar
  • Muhammad Ishtiaq City University of Science and Information Technology, Peshawar
Keywords: Middle class, Nissim Ezekiel, Social realism, Society, Upper class


Literature is a potential impetus for social change. It provides intellectual consciousness to dismantle the implacable foes of the society. Moreover, it acts as an opportunistic tool for the representation of social crisis. Social realism shows injustice, racism, class differences, and draws attention towards the struggle of middle and poor-class protagonists in the society. In addition, it highlights social conditioning of the people. The present study pinpoints social realities of Indian society in the selected poems of Nissim Ezekiel under the theoretical framework of social realism by Prakash Khuman (2010). It also exhibits the social issues of the middle and lower class. Qualitative content analysis of Ezekiel's selected poems sheds light on the realities of Indian society. Result of the study unravels hidden social realities and the indifferent attitude of the upper class towards the lower class. Findings of the current study reveal significant implications of the root cause behind
the unjustified attitude of the upper class. It also shows a strong reaction of Ezekiel to the intimidating behemoths of the social system. Furthermore, the present study gives a pathway to future studies to find out the different social problems prevalent in other societies.